Contents

SECTION ONE 1
CANCER OVERVIEW
Chapter 1: Learning the Cancer Language
Cancer Terminology 2
Terms for Parts of the Body Affected by Cancer 22
Medical and Health Professionals Related to Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment 23
Chapter 2: Introduction
Causes and Risk Factors for Cancer 26
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Cancer 27
Cancer among Children 27
Family Cancer 28
HIV/AIDS among Cancer Patients 29
Sexuality and Cancer 29
Pregnancy and Cancer 31
Psychological Problems among Cancer Patients 32
Palliative Care 32
Euthanasia 33
Complementary Therapies for Cancer 33
Cancer and Lifestyle 34
Can cancers be prevented? 34
Screening and early detection of cancer 35
Special issues among cancer patients 35
New advances in cancer treatment 36
Book Overview 36
Chapter 3: What is Cancer?
Cause of Cancer 37
Spread of Cancer 38
Primary and Secondary Malignant Cancers 38
Types of Cancer 38
Genetic and Inherited Cancer 39
Risk Factors for Cancer 39
Some Cancer Facts 40
Chapter 4: Symptoms of Cancer
Chapter 5: Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer
History 43
Physical Examination 43
Laboratory Examination 43
Scanning 44
Blood Tests 44
Tumour markers 44
How is blood taken? 45
X-ray 45
Preparation for X-ray 46
Ultrasound/Ultrasonography 46
Preparation for ultrasound scan 46
Mammography 46
Preparation for mammography 46
CT Scan/CAT Scan 47
Preparation for CT scan 48
MRI Scan 48
Preparation for MRI scan 48
PET Scan 49
Preparation for PET scan 49
Surgical Procedures for Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment 50
Biopsy 50
Skin grafting and skin flaps 52
Laparotomy 53
Laparoscopy 54
Endoscopy 54
Pap test 55
Digital rectal examination (DRE) 56
General Staging of Cancer 57
Chapter 6: Management of Cancer
Treatment of Cancer 59
Surgery 61
General complications of surgery 61
Home care after surgery 62
Radiation Therapy or Radiotherapy 63
Types of radiotherapy 64
Side effects of radiotherapy 65
Chemotherapy 67
How is chemotherapy given? 68
Side effects of chemotherapy 68
Follow Up after Cancer Treatment 69
Prognosis of Cancer 69
SECTION TWO
CANCERS AMONG WOMEN
Chapter 7: Breast Cancer
Anatomy of the Breast 72
Breast Cancer Statistics 72
Types of Breast Cancer 73
Ductal breast cancer or ductal carcinoma 73
Invasive lobular carcinoma 73
Ductal cancer in situ (DCIS) 73
Lobular cancer in situ (LCIS) 73
Paget’s disease 74
Inflammatory breast cancer 74
Receptor positive breast cancers 74
Risk Factors 74
Signs and Symptoms 76
Diagnosis 77
Staging (TNM Classification) 79
Treatment 80
Surgery 80
Radiation therapy 81
Chemotherapy 82
Hormonal therapy 82
Biological therapy 83
Follow Up 83
Prognosis 84
Prevention 84
Screening and early detection of breast cancer 85
Breast self-examination 85
Breast physical examination 85
Screening mammogram 85

Chapter 8: Cervical Cancer
Anatomy of the Cervix 87
Risk Factors 87
Types of Cervical Cancer 88
Symptoms 88
Diagnosis 89
Staging 90
Treatment 91
Surgery 91
Radiation therapy 93
Chemotherapy 93
Follow Up 94
Prognosis 94
Screening 94
Pap tests 94
Cervical cancer screening 95
Why screen at a two-year interval? 96
Prevention 96
Chapter 9: Ovarian Cancer
Anatomy of the Ovary 98
Types of Ovarian Cancer 98
Risk Factors 98
Symptoms 100
Diagnosis 100
Other tests 101
Staging 102
Treatment 102
Surgery 103
Chemotherapy 104
Radiotherapy 104
Follow Up 104
Prognosis 105
Prevention 105
Screening 105
Chapter 10: Uterine Cancer
Anatomy of the Uterus 106
Types of Cancer 106
Risk Factors 106
Symptoms 108
Diagnosis 108
Staging 110
Treatment 111
Surgery 112
Radiotherapy 113
Chemotherapy 114
Hormone therapy 115
Follow Up 115
Prognosis 115
Prevention 116
Screening 116

Chapter 11: Cancers of the Vulva and Vagina
Anatomy of the Vulva and Vagina 117
Cancer of the Vulva and Vagina 117
Risk Factors 117
Symptoms 118
Diagnosis 118
Staging 119
Treatment 120
Treatment of vulva cancer 120
Treatment of vaginal cancer 121
Follow Up 123
Prognosis 123
Prevention 123
Screening 124

 

SECTION THREE
CANCERS AMONG MEN
Chapter 12: Cancer of the Penis
Anatomy of the Penis 126
Cancer of the Penis or Penile Cancer 126
Risk Factors 126
Symptoms 127
Diagnosis 127
Staging 128
Treatment 129
Surgery 130
Radiotherapy 130
Chemotherapy 131
Follow Up 131
Prognosis 131
Prevention 132
Screening 132
Chapter 13: Prostate Cancer
Anatomy of the Prostate 133
Risk Factors 133
Symptoms 134
Diagnosis 135
Grading and Staging 136
Treatment 137
Watchful waiting or active surveillance 138
Surgery 138
Radiation therapy 140
Hormone therapy 141
Chemotherapy 142
HIFU 143
Follow Up 143
Prognosis 143
Prevention 144
Screening 144
New Developments in Prostate Cancer 144
Chapter 14: Testicular Cancer
Anatomy of the Testicles 145
Types of Testicular Cancer 145
Risk Factors 145
Symptoms 146
Diagnosis 146
Staging (TNM Classification) 147
Treatment 148
Surgery 149
Chemotherapy 149
Radiation therapy 150
Prognosis 150
Follow Up 151
Prevention 151
Screening 151
Sexuality, Fertility and Testicular Cancer Treatment 151
SECTION FOUR
BLOOD CANCERS
Chapter 15: Leukaemia
Types of Leukaemia 155
Risk Factors 156
Symptoms 156
Diagnosis 157
Staging 158
Treatment 159
ALL 160
AML 161
CLL 162
CML 164
Follow Up 165
Prognosis 165
Prevention 165
Screening 165
Hairy Cell Leukaemia 166

Chapter 16: Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Types of Lymphoma 167
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma 167
Risk Factors 167
Immune system deficiency 167
Certain infections 168
Symptoms 168
Diagnosis 168
Staging 169
Treatment 170
Chemotherapy 171
Radiotherapy 172
Biological therapies 172
Stem cell transplant 173
Follow Up 173
Prognosis 174
Prevention 174
Screening 174
Chapter 17: Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Incidence 175
Biopsy 175
Age 175
Location of Cancer 175
Progression 176
Treatment 176
Follow Up 176
Prognosis 176
Prevention 177
Screening 177
Chapter 18: Multiple Myeloma 178
White Blood Cells and Myeloma 178
Risk Factors 178
Symptoms 179
Diagnosis 179
Staging 180
Treatment 181
Watchful waiting 182
Intensive treatment 182
Chemotherapy 182
Steroid therapy 183
Radiotherapy 183
Biological therapy 183
Follow Up 183
Prognosis 184
Prevention 184
Screening 184
SECTION FIVE
OTHER CANCERS
Chapter 19: Bladder Cancer
Anatomy of the Bladder 186
Types of Bladder Cancer 186
Risk Factors 187
Symptoms 188
Diagnosis 188
Staging (TNM Classification) 189
Treatment 190
Surgery 190
Immunological therapy 191
Chemotherapy 191
Radiation therapy 192
Follow Up 192
Prognosis 192
Prevention 192
Screening 192
Chapter 20: Bone Cancer
Anatomy of the Bone 193
Cancers of the Bone 193
Risk Factors 194
Symptoms 194
Diagnosis 194
Staging 195
Treatment 196
Surgery 196
Chemotherapy 197
Radiotherapy 197
Follow Up 197
Prognosis 198
Prevention 198
Screening 198
Chapter 21: Bowel or Colorectal Cancer
Anatomy of the Colon and Rectum 199
Bowel Cancer Statistics 199
Types of Cancer in the Colon and Rectum 200
Risk Factors 200
Lifestyle Factors for Colorectal Cancer 201
Symptoms 201
Diagnosis 202
Staging (TNM Classification) 204
Treatment 204
Surgery 205
Cryotherapy 205
Chemotherapy 206
Radiation therapy 206
Recurrent colon cancer 206
Follow Up 206
Prognosis 207
Prevention 207
Screening 207
Chapter 22: Brain Cancer
Anatomy of the Brain 209
Brain Tumours 209
Risk Factors 210
Grading 210
Symptoms 211
Diagnosis 212
Treatment 213
Surgery 214
Radiotherapy 214
Chemotherapy 215
Steroid therapy 215
Follow Up 215
Prognosis 216
Prevention 216
Screening 216
Chapter 23: Cancer of Unknown Primary
Risk Factors 217
Symptoms 217
Diagnosis 218
Staging 219
Treatment 219
Follow Up 220
Prognosis 220
Prevention 220
Screening 220
Chapter 24: Eye Cancer
Anatomy of the Eye 221
Cancers of the Eye 221
Risk Factors 221
Symptoms 222
Diagnosis 222
Stages 223
Treatment 224
Radiotherapy for melanoma of the eye 224
Treating lymphoma of the eye 225
Treating retinoblastoma 225
Follow Up 225
Prognosis 226
Prevention 226
Screening 226
Chapter 25: Gallbladder
Anatomy of the Gallbladder 227
Cancer of the Gallbladder 227
Risk Factors 227
Symptoms 228
Diagnosis 228
Staging 229
Treatment 230
Surgery 230
Radiotherapy 231
Chemotherapy 231
Follow Up 231
Prognosis 231
Prevention 232
Screening 232
Chapter 26: Head and Neck Cancers
Types of Cancers 233
Risk Factors 233
Symptoms 234
Diagnosis 235
Staging (TNM Classification) 236
Treatment 237
Surgery 237
Radiotherapy 238
Chemotherapy 238
Follow Up 239
Prognosis 239
Prevention 239
Screening 239
Chapter 27: Kidney Cancer
Anatomy of the Kidneys 240
Kidney Cancer 240
Risk Factors 240
Symptoms 241
Diagnosis 241
Staging (TNM Classification) 242
Treatment 243
Surgery 244
Biological therapy or immunotherapy 244
Radiotherapy for kidney cancer 245
Chemotherapy for kidney cancer 245
Follow Up 245
Prognosis 245
Prevention 246
Screening 246
Chapter 28: Liver Cancer
Anatomy of the Liver 247
Cancer of the Liver 247
Risk Factors 247
Symptoms 249
Diagnosis 249
Staging (TNM Classification) 250
Treatment 251
Surgery and liver transplant 252
Radiotherapy 252
Chemotherapy 252
Biological therapy 252
Follow Up 252
Prognosis 253
Prevention 253
Screening 253
Chapter 29: Lung Cancer
Anatomy of the Lungs 254
Types of Lung Cancer 254
Risk Factors 254
Symptoms 255
Diagnosis 256
Staging 257
Treatment 258
Surgery 259
Chemotherapy 259
Radiotherapy 260
Follow Up 260
Prognosis 260
Prevention 261
Screening 261
Chapter 30: Pleural Mesothelioma
Mesothelioma 262
Risk Factors 262
Symptoms 262
Diagnosis 263
Treatment 264
Surgery 265
Chemotherapy 265
Radiotherapy 265
Follow Up 265
Prognosis 266
Prevention 266
Screening 266

Chapter 31: Oesophageal Cancer
Anatomy of the Oesophagus 267
Oesophageal Cancer 267
Risk Factors 268
Symptoms 268
Diagnosis 269
Staging (TNM Classification) 270
Treatment 271
Surgery 271
Chemotherapy 272
Radiotherapy 273
Follow Up 273
Prognosis 274
Prevention 274
Screening 274

Chapter 32: Pancreatic Cancer
Anatomy of the Pancreas 275
Cancers of the Pancreas 275
Risk Factors 275
Symptoms 276
Diagnosis 276
Staging (TNM Classification) 277
Treatment 278
Surgery 278
Chemotherapy 280
Radiotherapy 280
Follow Up 280
Prognosis 281
Prevention 281
Screening 281

Chapter 33: Stomach Cancer
Anatomy of the Stomach 282
Types of Stomach Cancer 282
Risk Factors 283
Symptoms 284
Diagnosis 284
Staging (TNM Classification) 285
Treatment 286
Surgery 287
Chemotherapy 288
Radiotherapy 288
Follow Up 288
Prognosis 289
Prevention 289
Screening 289

Chapter 34: Skin Cancers
Anatomy of the Skin 290
Cancer of the Skin 290

Chapter 35: Non-Melanoma Cancers of the Skin
Risk Factors 291
Symptoms 292
Diagnosis 293
Stages (TNM Classification) 294
Treatment 294
Surgery 295
Radiotherapy 295
Chemotherapy 296
Cryotherapy 296
Biological therapy 296
Follow Up 296
Prognosis 297
Prevention 297
Screening 298

Chapter 36: Skin Cancer—Melanoma
Melanoma 299
Risk Factors 299
Symptoms 300
Diagnosis 300
Stages (TNM Classification) 301
Treatment 302
Surgery 303
Chemotherapy 303
Biological therapy 303
Radiotherapy 304
Follow Up 304
Prognosis 304
Prevention 304
Screening 305

Chapter 37: Thyroid Cancer
Anatomy of the Thyroid Gland 306
Types of Thyroid Cancer 306
Risk Factors 306
Symptoms 307
Diagnosis 307
Staging (TNM Classification) 309
Treatment 309
Surgery 310
Radiotherapy 310
Chemotherapy 311
Thyroid hormone therapy 311
Follow Up 311
Prognosis 312
Prevention 312
Screening 312

Chapter 38: Cancers among Children
Leukaemia 313
Lymphoma 314
Brain and Nervous System Cancers 314
Neuroblastoma 315
Wilms Tumour 316
Rhabdomyosarcoma 316
Retinoblastoma 317
Bone Cancers 317

Chapter 39: Cancer among HIV/AIDS Patients
Kaposi’s Sarcoma 319
Types of KS 319
Symptoms 320
Diagnosis 320
Treatment 321
Radiation therapy 321
Surgery 321
Chemotherapy 321
Biological therapy 321
Prevention 322
Screening 322

 

SECTION SIX
OTHER ISSUES AMONG CANCER PATIENTS
Chapter 40: Family Cancers, Genetic Counselling and Tests
Does Cancer Run in My Family? 324
Know the Risk of Cancer 324
Breast and ovarian cancer 324
Colon cancer 325
Melanoma 326
Genetic Counselling and Testing 327

Chapter 41: Cancer and Sexuality
The Effects of Cancer Treatment on Sexuality and Ways to Manage Them 329
Problems among women 329
Management of problems among women 330
Problems among men 331
Management of sexual problems among men 332
Summary 335

Chapter 42: Cancer during Pregnancy
Cancers during Pregnancy 336
Diagnostic Methods during Pregnancy 337
Cancer Treatment during Pregnancy 337
Which treatments are not safe for the foetus? 337
Can the cancer spread to the foetus? 338

Chapter 43: Psychological Problems among Cancer Patients
Causes of Depression and Anxiety among Cancer Patients 339
Depression 340
Anxiety 341
Management of Depression and Anxiety among Cancer Patients 341
CBT 342
Medications for depression 342
Medications for anxiety 343

Chapter 44: Palliative Treatment of Cancer
Pain among Cancer Patients 345
Management of cancer pain 346
Other ways of treating cancer pain 347

Chapter 45: Euthanasia

 

Chapter 46: Complementary Therapies for Cancer Patients
Chapter 47: Cancer and Lifestyle
Can Cancers be Prevented? 352
Smoking 352
Reducing smoking-related cancers 353
Obesity 353
Reducing obesity-related cancers 354
Diet 354
Reducing diet-related cancers 355
Alcohol 355
Reducing alcohol-related cancers 355
Lack of Exercise 356
Reducing exercise-related cancers 356
Ultraviolet Rays 358
Sexual Activity 359

Chapter 48: Screening and Early Detection of Cancer
Breast Cancer Screening 360
Cervical Cancer Screening 361
Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer Screening 362
Prostate Cancer Screening 363

Chapter 49: Special Issues among Cancer Patients
Colostomy Bags 364
Care of colostomy bags (pouch) 364
Instructions for colostomy bags 364
Urinary Bags 366
Emptying urinary bags 366
Changing urinary bags 367
Cleaning urinary bags 367
Feeding Tubes 368
Nasogastric tubes 368
PEG tubes 369

Chapter 50: New Developments in Cancer Treatment
Nanotechnology 371
Gene Therapy 372
Chapter 51: Conclusion

Abbreviations

References

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